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Readings and references

Recommended readings

For further details on the transparent representation of risk-related information and on heuristic decision making, we recommend the following articles:

  • Arkes, H. R., & Gaissmaier, W. (2012). Psychological research and the prostate-cancer screening controversy. Psychological Science, 23, 547–553.

  • Garcia-Retamero, R., & Cokely, E. T. (2017). Designing visual aids that promote risk literacy: A systematic review of health research and evidence-based design heuristics. Human Factors, 59, 582–627.

  • Gigerenzer, G. (2002). Reckoning with risk: Learning to live with uncertainty. London, UK: Penguin.

  • Gigerenzer, G. (2014). Risk savvy: How to make good decisions. New York, NY: Penguin.

  • Gigerenzer, G., & Gaissmaier, W. (2011). Heuristic decision making. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 451–482.
    [Available online]

  • Gigerenzer, G., Gaissmaier, W., Kurz-Milcke, E., Schwartz, L., & Woloshin, S. (2007). Helping doctors and patients make sense of health statistics. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 8, 53–96.
    [Available online]

  • Gigerenzer, G., & Hoffrage, U. (1995). How to improve Bayesian reasoning without instruction: Frequency formats. Psychological Review, 102, 684–704.

  • Hoffrage, U., Gigerenzer, G., Krauss, S., & Martignon, L. (2002). Representation facilitates reasoning: What natural frequencies are and what they are not. Cognition, 84, 343–352.

  • Hoffrage, U., Krauss, S., Martignon, L., & Gigerenzer, G. (2015). Natural frequencies improve Bayesian reasoning in simple and complex inference tasks. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1473.

  • Hoffrage, U., Lindsey, S., Hertwig, R., & Gigerenzer, G. (2000). Communicating statistical information. Science, 290, 2261–2262.

  • Khan, A., Breslav, S., Glueck, M., & Hornbæk, K. (2015). Benefits of visualization in the mammography problem. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 83, 94–113.

  • Kurzenhäuser, S., & Hoffrage, U. (2002). Teaching Bayesian reasoning: An evaluation of a classroom tutorial for medical students. Medical Teacher, 24, 516–521.

  • Kurz-Milcke, E., Gigerenzer, G., & Martignon, L. (2008). Transparency in risk communication. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1128, 18–28.

  • Micallef, L., Dragicevic, P., & Fekete, J.-D. (2012). Assessing the effect of visualizations on Bayesian reasoning through crowd-sourcing. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 18, 2536–2545.

  • Neth, H., & Gigerenzer, G. (2015). Heuristics: Tools for an uncertain world. In R. Scott & S. Kosslyn (Eds.), Emerging trends in the social and behavioral sciences. New York, NY: Wiley Online Library.
    [Available online]

  • Sedlmeier, P., & Gigerenzer, G. (2001). Teaching Bayesian reasoning in less than two hours. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 380–400.

  • Wassner, C., Martignon, L., & Biehler, R. (2004). Bayesianisches Denken in der Schule. Unterrichtswissenschaft, 32, 58–96.


We gratefully acknowledge the following references for creating riskyr and the riskyrApp:

riskyr and riskyrApp are developed and designed by members of SPDS.

riskyr logo



The riskyrApp is an interactive application that complements the R package riskyr. The application is written in R Shiny and allows using riskyr without any need for coding.

riskyr originated out of a series of lectures and workshops on risk literacy. The current version (0.2.0, as of Dec. 20, 2018) is still under development. Its primary designers are Hansjörg Neth, Felix Gaisbauer, Nico Gradwohl, and Wolfgang Gaissmaier, who are researchers at the department of Social Psychology and Decision Sciences at the University of Konstanz, Germany.

The riskyr package is open source software written in R and released under the GPL 2 | GPL 3 licenses.


The following resources and versions are currently available:

Type: Version: URL:
A. riskyr (R package): Release version:
Development version:
B. riskyrApp (R Shiny): Online version:
Development version:
C. Online documentation: Release version:
Development version:


We appreciate your feedback, comments, or questions.


riskyr logo

To cite riskyr in derivations and publications please use:

  • Neth, H., Gaisbauer, F., Gradwohl, N., & Gaissmaier, W. (2018).
    riskyr: A toolbox for rendering risk literacy more transparent.
    Social Psychology and Decision Sciences, University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Computer software (R package version 0.2.0, Dec. 20, 2018).
    Retrieved from

A BibTeX entry for LaTeX users is:

  title = {riskyr: A toolbox for rendering risk literacy more transparent},
  author = {Hansjörg Neth and Felix Gaisbauer and Nico Gradwohl and Wolfgang Gaissmaier},
  year = {2018},
  organization = {Social Psychology and Decision Sciences, University of Konstanz},
  address = {Konstanz, Germany},
  note = {R package (version 0.2.0, Dec. 20, 2018)},
  url = {},

Calling citation("riskyr") in the package also displays this information.